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GoldDragon
Black Belt
Black Belt

Joined: 10 Aug 2001
Posts: 1363
Location: Hartford, Connecticut

PostPosted: Mon Sep 17, 2001 7:35 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

KUMITE - Sparring with a partner.

This part of Karate training allows students to practice and perfect techniques for attacking, defending and counterattacking with realism but in relative safety.

There are seven main types of kumite, they are as follows :



1. KIHON IPPON KUMITE
Basic One Step Sparring

2. GOHON KUMITE
Five Step Sparring

3. SANBON KUMITE
Three Step Sparring

4. KEASHI IPPON KUMITE
Two Step Sparring

5. JIYU IPPON KUMITE
Semi Freestyle Sparring

6. OKURI JIYU IPPON KUMITE
Two Step

Semi Freestyle Sparring

(Second Step Free)

7. JIYU KUMITE
Freestyle Sparring




Good Etiquette and respect for your training partner must be shown at all times during Kumite practice.

When practising Kihon (basics) in the Dojo a student should step forward with speed and power, Kiai loudly to show good spirit.

When practising Kumite in the Dojo a student should step backwards to show respect and thanks to the partner for assisting them in their training.

Kumite practice starts and finishes with both partners facing each other in Musubi-Dachi ( Informal attention stance, heels touching and toes turned out at 45%, hands open and touching the outside of the legs ) and both partners Rei (bow).



1. KIHON IPPON KUMITE ( Basic One Step Sparring )
Method

On the command Yoi (ready) both partners, moving their right foot, move into Hachiji-Dachi ( Open Leg stance, heels shoulder width apart toes turned out at 45 angle ). The student who is to attack first steps back gedan-barai ( right or left side, as instructed ) and announces the speed, level and technique of attack. The defender concentrates his or her mind on the techniques to be practiced and acknowledges the attacker with the word Oss!

The attack should be focused on the designated target with good spirit and control, ensuring that the technique is correctly executed (Stance, Breathing and Kime).

The defender must show good spirit and control when blocking, ensuring breathing and stance is correct and must kime the block before the counterattack is executed.

Both partners should remain in position and in a state of Zanshin (Total Awareness, readiness) until the instructor calls Yamea! (Stop) and Enyoi! (Relax)

When practising with a partner you are responsible for their safety, good control must be exercised at all times!

Aims

To allow students to practice punching, kicking, striking and blocking techniques with an opponent and to feel the resistance to these techniques when directed at another human being.

Demonstrates the importance of correct distance, timing, movement and kime to the techniques practiced.



2. GOHON KUMITE ( Five Step Sparring )
Method

Begins as Ippon Kumite, but attacker steps forward five times attacking to the nominated target area and the defender steps back and blocks five times, after the fifth block the defender counter attacks with gyaku zuki ( Kiai only when attack is speed and power ).

Gohon Kumite is usually practiced slow to count, fast to count, and then speed and power no count.

When practising speed and power the attacker should not move forward rhythmically, but should plan his attacks to catch the defender off guard. The defender should not move backwards until the attack is underway.

With all types of Kumite both partners must concentrate fully and approach the training seriously, as any slight lack of concentration could cause an accident.

Aims

The aims are the same as Ippon Kumite. They also give the student practice in changing stance, gaining distance whilst moving backwards and demonstrate the importance of correct stance and distance in all techniques.



3. SANBON KUMITE ( Three Step Sparring )
Method

The method is basically the same as Gohon Kumite but there are only three attacks. Sanbon Kumite is often practiced using three different attacking techniques, i.e. Jodan, Chudan and Mae-geri or Jodan, Chudan and Kekomi, etc. The defender must execute the correct block for the attacking technique used and counter attack after the third block.

Aims

The aims are the same as Gohon Kumite, but with the added difficulty of the differing attacking and blocking techniques the level of stress in the training is increased. This helps to improve the "thinking skills", i.e. reaction, memory, concentration, etc.





4. KEASHI IPPON KUMITE
Two Step Sparring
Method

On the command Yoi (ready) both partners, moving their right foot, move into Hachiji-Dachi (Open Leg stance, heels shoulder width apart toes turned out at 45 angle). The student who is to attack first steps back gedan-barai (right or left side, as instructed) and announces the speed, level and technique of attack. The defender concentrates his or her mind on the techniques to be practiced and acknowledges the attacker with the word Oss!

The first student attacks to the designated target area with the correct technique, the other student steps back, blocks and then steps forward to attack, the first student steps back to block and finishes with a counterattack.

The attacks should be focused on the designated target with good spirit and control, ensuring that the technique is correctly executed (Stance, Breathing and Kime).

The defender must show good spirit and control when blocking, ensuring breathing and stance is correct and must kime the block before stepping forward to counterattack.

Aims

To allow students to practice punching, kicking, striking and blocking techniques with an opponent, whilst moving forward and backwards and helps to improve timing, distance and total awareness.

Keashi Ippon Kumite introduces the student to the idea of seizing the initiative and turning defence into attack.



5. JIYU IPPON KUMITE Semi Freestyle Sparring
Method

After the initial bow and the command Yoi (ready) both partners step back Gedan Barai and assume the free style position (Jiyu Kamae).

In the free style position the student should be relaxed, but on guard, ready and able to change stance, move body position, advance or retreat and be able to defend themselves from any attack using arms and legs to block and strike.

The stance should be shorter than normal front stance, with the back leg slightly bent and the weight distributed evenly between front and back legs allowing the body to be moved backwards or forwards easily and quickly, straightening the bent leg gives added speed and distance to the body movements.

The arms should be held in a position where they can cover or block an attack whilst being ready to punch or strike an opponent.

The student who is to attack first announces the speed, level and technique of attack.

The defender concentrates his or her mind on the techniques to be practiced and acknowledges the attacker with the word Oss!

The attack should be focused on the designated target with good spirit and control, ensuring that the technique is correctly executed (Stance, Breathing and Kime).

The defender must show good spirit and control when blocking, ensuring breathing and stance is correct and must kime the block before the counterattack is executed.

The counterattack should be executed and then pulled back fully (i.e. gyaku zuki, the student should kime the punch and then withdraw the fist to the hip, the opposite hand should be thrust forward forcefully).

Both partners should remain in position and in a state of Zanshin (Total Awareness, readiness) until the instructor calls Yamea! (Stop) and Enyoi! (Relax)

Aims

Introduces students to sparring from a more realistic fighting stance and encourages more Tai-sabaki (body movement).

Improves Maai (distance), using the bent legs to propel the body forwards or backwards over greater distances), timing and Zanshin (poise and complete control, total awareness).





6. OKURI JIYU IPPON KUMITE Two Step Semi Freestyle Sparring ( Second Step Free )
Method

As in Jiyu Ippon both students start from Kamae and the first student announces the target area or technique to be used. The second student focuses his mind on the block and counter to be used and replies Oss!

After the defender has executed his block and counter, the attacker carries out a second attack without announcing his intended target or technique.

The attacker should choose a target area and technique that has the best chance of success and that puts the defender at the biggest disadvantage, making defence difficult.

The defender has to execute an effective block and counterattack, pulling back after the counterattack to Kamae and maintaining Zanshin (total awareness).

Students must show good spirit and control, ensuring breathing and stance is correct and must kime all techniques.

Aims

Ochri Jiyu Ippon is the first step to free style sparring.

Students are encouraged to look for the advantage, an opening to attack, defending against the unexpected, looking for the best position after the defence to execute the counterattack.

Zanshin !



7. JIYU KUMITE Freestyle Sparring
Jiyu Kumite (freestyle sparring) should only be practiced by students who have a good knowledge of Kihon (the basic techniques) r Maai (distance), timing, co-ordination and, most importantly, good control.

Freestyle should only be practiced under strict supervision and in an organised and controlled manner.

Method

The instructor (referee) should explain the rules and the commands he will use to start and stop the bout, and will ask both students if they understand. He will emphasise that there should be no contact and that both students must listen for his commands and obey immediately.

The students Rei (bow) to the instructor and to each other and on the command take up Kamae.

On the command Hajime (begin) both students should move to put themselves into the best position to attack, whilst guarding against a surprise attack from the opponent.

Good spirit should be shown at all times, Kiai all attacking techniques, and execute all techniques correctly, paying particular attention to breathing, stance, timing and Kime.

Aims

To improve control, technique, timing, concentration and total awareness under the stress of real combat.

In time, and with a lot of practice, all techniques should become "motor responses". In defence or on the attack the techniques should happen without the need for you to think of the specific move.

The Chinese and Japanese call this the state of "No Mind".



Summary
Kumite should be considered as a small but important part of your overall Karate training.

Without a good knowledge and understanding of Kihon (basics) and Kata (formal exercise) you cannot improve in Kumite.

Kumite is a relatively new part of Karate training, when Master Gichin Funakoshi first introduced Karate to Japan he taught only Kihon (basics) and Kata (formal exercise).

Kumite as it is practiced today did not exist.

It was only later when his son started teaching and Karate was being taught in the universities that Kumite and competition Karate became popular.

I would like to finish with quotations from two masters:



The importance of kata to kumite cannot be overemphasised.

If techniques are used unnaturally or in a forced way, posture will break down and if the kata techniques become confused when applied, no improvement in kumite can be expected.

In other words, improvements in kumite depend directly on improvements in kata, the two go together like hand in glove.

It is a mistake to emphasise one at the expense of the other.

Masatosh, Nakayama 9th Dan

In Kata, we learn with an imaginary opponent, only the body movements and the use of a wide range of techniques of attacks and blocks.

In Kumite, we learn to apply, against one or many opponents, all the techniques found in Kata.

Thus Kumite is the practice of Kata with Maai.

The importance of Kata to kumite in Karate-Do can be compared to the two wheels of a cart.

GoldDragon
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babysteffee
Green Belt
Green Belt

Joined: 21 Aug 2001
Posts: 378
Location: Durham, UK

PostPosted: Tue Sep 18, 2001 1:17 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Wow, GoldDragon, lots of information there...think I'll print that off...

Thanks a lot.
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Karateka
Red Belt
Red Belt

Joined: 22 Jun 2001
Posts: 786
Location: North Vancouver, Canada

PostPosted: Tue Sep 18, 2001 4:04 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Perhaps that should go in the Karate section. I won't move it, but just for future reference.

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Tobias_Reece
Brown Belt
Brown Belt

Joined: 26 May 2001
Posts: 691
Location: Leeds, England
Styles: Matayoshi Okinawawn Kobudo, Shotokan Karate

PostPosted: Wed Sep 19, 2001 7:52 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hi all

Correct me if I'm wrong, but didn't Nakayama and Funakoshi have some friction, because Nakayama wanted to create competitions, which were against the ideas of Funakoshi.

C ya

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2nd Kyu (Matayoshi Okinawan Kobudo, IOKA UK)
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KUGB_Chris1985
Orange Belt
Orange Belt

Joined: 03 Jun 2001
Posts: 210
Location: Harrogate, N.yorkshire, UK

PostPosted: Thu Sep 20, 2001 1:10 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

WOW, you must of being bored!!!
only joking

P.S yes Tobias, you are correct.
Oss

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Oss!
Chris Pullan.
1st Dan Shotokan Karate. (KUGB)
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GoldDragon
Black Belt
Black Belt

Joined: 10 Aug 2001
Posts: 1363
Location: Hartford, Connecticut

PostPosted: Thu Sep 20, 2001 1:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

lol, not bored at all-
I am a fanatic of the Arts. Shoot-- I can write a book!......lol

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kajugangsta
Yellow Belt
Yellow Belt

Joined: 26 Aug 2001
Posts: 41


PostPosted: Thu Sep 20, 2001 1:40 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

GOLDDRAGON.........you ever thought of writing a book.
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kicker
Black Belt
Black Belt

Joined: 17 Sep 2001
Posts: 3649
Location: Canada!!!! (The 5th biggest City)
Styles: kickboxing, muay thai, tennis, lots more.

PostPosted: Thu Sep 20, 2001 2:52 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:

On 2001-09-20 15:40, kajugangsta wrote:
GOLDDRAGON.........you ever thought of writing a book.


thats a good but its good so far!!!!!
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GoldDragon
Black Belt
Black Belt

Joined: 10 Aug 2001
Posts: 1363
Location: Hartford, Connecticut

PostPosted: Thu Sep 20, 2001 3:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Good question there Kicker--
I have had many ideas to write a book.
I have had titles such as:

"Dragons Lair of Defense"

" The Dragon Speaks "

.....and other ideas.

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kicker
Black Belt
Black Belt

Joined: 17 Sep 2001
Posts: 3649
Location: Canada!!!! (The 5th biggest City)
Styles: kickboxing, muay thai, tennis, lots more.

PostPosted: Thu Sep 20, 2001 6:24 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

ya plenty more!! then you have to pick a title will take a day to write it. put it in a book then do all the editing and then finally if it gets accepted.. about 7 months to do!!!
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